而很多考生就是在阅读时没办法准确判断paraphrasing(同义替换)，从而导致失分严重。ETS甚至针对这一语言现象专门出了“sentence simplification”这一题型。那么对于这一考察，究竟应该怎么做呢？ 接下来就来细数一下所谓的paraphrasing 现象究竟有哪几种。
原文：The first steps toward change were taken by Solon in594B.C.,when he broke the aristocracys strangle hold on elected offices by establishing wealth rather than birth as the basis of office holding...
题目：According to paragraph3,an important effect of making wealth the basis of office holding was to
[A]make fewer people qualified to be members of the assembly
[B]make it possible for non-aristocrats to hold office
[C]help the aristocrats maintain power
[D]Increase economic opportunities for all Athenian citizens
原句中的broke the aristocracy’s strangle hold on elected offices 这句话中的broke 为否定词，替换成近义词否定，成为否定前缀non-，而aristocracy 则替换成同义词，替换成aristocrats。
原文：Cleisthenes principal contribution to the creation of democracy at Athens was to complete the long process of weakening family and clan structures...
题目：According to Paragraph 4, one effect of making the demes the point of entry for civic life was to
[A]ensure that every region had the same number of commissioners
[B]distribute the population more equally throughout the Athens region
[C]limit the number of aristocratic clans
[D]reduce the importance of family connections
原文：By the end of the century,the time was ripe for more change: the tyrants were driven out,andin508B.C.a new reformer, Cleisthenes gave final form to the developments reducing aristocratic control already underway.
题目：The tyrants were driven out, and in 508B.C. Cleisthenes put in place the structures that completed the weakening of the aristocracy
本题中出现的同义替换是词组的同义替换，gave final form替换成completed the weakening , 虽然单词不是特别的难，但是重点在于阅读时不能只阅读单词，而是要以意群式阅读，以词组或者是短语为阅读单位，这样就不容易被此类干扰项混淆。
原文：However, no group or species can maintain its dominance indefinitely, and when, after over 200 million years, the age of dinosaurs came to a dramatic end about 65 million years ago, mammals began to flourish, evolving from relatively few types of small terrestrial animals into the myriad of diverse species, including bats and whales, that we know today.
题目：3.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
A.The dominance of dinosaurs came to an end 65 million years ago, at which time mammals began to flourish and diversify.
B.Because no group of species can remain dominant forever, mammals became the dominant group when dinosaurs became extinct.
C.After being the dominant group for more than 200 million years, the age of dinosaurs came to a dramatic end 65 million years ago.
D.The diverse group of mammals that we know today, including bats and whales, evolved from small terrestrial forms that had been dominated by dinosaurs.
TPO 40 P1T1
原文：One of the most important changes in Greece during the period from 800B.C.to500B.C.was the rise of the polis, or city-state,and each polis developed a system of government that was appropriate to its circumstances.
题目： Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about the Greek city-states?
A. Most city-states followed the model provided by Athens.
B. Most city-states were based on aristocratic rule.
C. Different types of government and organization were used by different city-states.
D. By 500B.C.the city-states were no longer powerful.
原文：In many characteristics, savanna soils are similar to those of some rain forests, though more extreme. For example, savanna soils, like many rain forest soils, are typically oxisols (dominated by certain oxide minerals) and ultisols (soils containing no calcium carbonate), with a high acidity notably low concentrations of such minerals as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, while aluminum levels are high. Some savannas occur on wet, waterlogged soils; other dry, sandy, well-drained soils. This many seem contradictory, but it only means that extreme soil conditions, either too wet or too dry for forests, are satisfactory for savannas. More moderate conditions support moist forests.
According to paragraph 3, rain forests and savannas differ in that
A.the soils in rain forests contain fewer minerals than savanna soils do.
B.savannas affect soil conditions more than rain forests do.
C.unlike rain forests, savannas prefer sandy, well-drained soils to soils that are very wet.
D.unlike rain forests, savannas may develop under both very dry and very wet soil conditions.